Whos Afraid of the WTO?

"Hagberg draws together some of the top thinkers in aesthetics to consider the cross-impacts between these philosophical disciplines. The selections are widely .

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Close to the building cluster, the other roads leading from the other terminating streets could be seen, but they fanned out radially and soon were lost behind the hills and the distance. Tiny side-roads led from one side or the other at considerable distance apart. These wound in among the small rolling hills that occasionally showed a small house-top.

City life was not known ; the cities were only collections of commercial buildings. Residences were entirely suburban. Then, eventually, Vella swerved off to the left and wound along the small rustic road past several dwellings to their own. It was set in a grove of trees, a complete little haven of itself. IT WAS all so very familiar, and John- tha's own key, selected unerringly from the keyring, opened the door. I He nodded. Doctor Kendon said: "By all means, let's eat. I've invited a group which should arrive at any moment.

You see, Johntha, there is something rather strange — in that it is perfectly clear- — in your ability to produce a concrete technical science during a stage of delirium. What, exactly, is thought? Who can answer? Per- haps your case may solve a minute bit of that never-ending question,'' "I'll try. Though he wondered. There was not a doubt in his own mind that if he tried to explain the full occurrence, they would try to put him away.

A complete exchange, in personality hut with retention of memory. A baffling improbabil- ity hut none the less evident. To try to tell ihem that he was Barry Williams, inhabiting the mind of their friend, Johntha, might be hard to swallow. Statements to that effect following a known mental illness would be strictly dis- counted as hallucination.

If he hadn't met the real Johntha in a mental rapport during the night and had his wonder confirmed, he would be largely convinced that Terra was really the dream of an invalid mind.

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Yet he hated to put them on the wrong track. Deliberately to mislead them went against his training in scientific accuracy. Then his reasoning reached logic. Since they'd not believe him if he told the truth; instead, they'd leap to the other conclusion anyway, he would tell them or lead them to believe what they wanted to believe. In that way he would do little harm, and would eventually arise out of suspicion. Once they thought him mentally capable, he might be able to start an interstellar project. He has been through an illness and has come out of it slighuy in mental confusion.

Give him time. He brought them over to Barry. We invided Mathematician Mara- dun too, but where is he? If Johntha remembers anything of mathematical nature, we can set them down for Maradun, who will be just as happy at the cold paper as with the warm man. Then Vella returned from the kitchen with a huge tray of light refreshments, and the doctor introduced her all around.

He said, "For the record, we've watched Johntha carefully since he awakenetf. At the initial stage, he seemed baffled 6y names and places. It was as though lie might have been an impostors placed there for some unknown reason. However, no impostor could have conducted himself with such finality, nor would an im- postor own Johntha's personal set of physical identities. He is positively identified as Johntha. Put minor Items such as fingerprints in this house; In his own labora- tory on all his tools, and found in his school- day textbooks all agree.

Go pn. He dressed himself and selected the proper clothing for Johntha's personality. But this is wasting valuable time. Besides, there is no motive for fraud. Other things of equal question were his insUtence on his ability to devise atomic engines. He men- tioned a number of alien things with easy familiarity.

This was supposed to be a superspeed ship capable of interstellar flight. According to Johntha, at that time, he had been a man called "Varri Wey- yaimi. He then attempted to prove his false identity and produced considerable logic of a strange basis. T consulted Maradun," sug- gested Tharmane. They didn't add up, or were based on what he called a false premise. Then they have to go all the way back to the beginning and re-butld.

Total annihilation of aJpha— what a wonderful dream I" "Dream? It takes a lot of energy to make alpha out of hydrogen. Tremendous input is required to make that reaction go. To get it out — how could you make the re- action self-sustaining? But what kind of system could be devised? I'm puzzled. Back on Terra the problem had been solved without the use of the sub-etheric levels, though it would require much practical improvement. As things stood, the Star Lady's engines did work, but at a dangerously low factor of safety.

Alpha is a high-energy neucleus, and it is a standard rule that when there are two possibilities of reaction, the one with the lowest energy level will go almost exclusively. What would you contain the reaction in? That multiplied the problem. There was something about extended magnetic fields in a complex pattern that generated sufficient starting-energy without back-fire. Barry mentioned this vaguely. How do you develop fields of such intensity?

Edmond Hamilton - Exile

Not in any prime mover I know of. Physicist Tharmane nodded and then said : "Homarr has been in slight- argument with Johntha. Perhaps you may be able to shed tame light on the validity of Johntha'a premise" Mathematician Maradun took several sheets of paper out of Vella's notebook, casually found a large pencil in his pocket hen sat with both the pencil and himself poised expectantly.

The subconscious mind is but a master file-index; a library of facts and ex- perience. Anything handed to the subcon- scious mind by the conscious mind for tabu- lation will be inspected and evaluated in terms of the subconscious mind's experience. The answer will then be returned to the conscious mind for use.

The psychologist smiled. A man is standing on the side of a mountain. An avalanche is approaching. The man's con- scious mind takes in all the details. The sub- conscious mind looks over the data and says : If you remain, you will die. If you jump, you will die. There is but one escape and that is to flv like a bird, which is impossible. If it happens to be terri- fying data, it is still handed forth. When the conscious mind is confronted time and time again with terrifying data, it begins to pass erratic data to the subconscious.

The subconscious mind has no means of accepting data directly, so it takes the false data and uses that to evaluate future information. Store a lot of falsified data, and you have insanity. How many times have we been baffled by a problem; gone to bed in desperation, and a wakened to resume the problem with success? That comes because the subconscious mind has been working on the problem all the time.

Sometimes the subconscious mind will come up with the right answer and produce it in a very clear dream. An erratic mechanism — the problem — may be depicted in a dream as a fractured toy, a carousel running back- wards, or a weapon that fires improperly "In the case of Johntha, let us examine the motives of the mind. Johntha was ill with a nervous disorder that threatened the mind. The mind as a means of remaining sane did claim that he was someone else. He built up a com- plete life, a new personality, a new field of endeavor.

It is quite possible that the uninhibited subcon- scious mind will accept a problem called im- possible by a mind trained to accept the im- possibility as such. It may be impossible because of natural causes in which case the entire thought-pattern is false. If it is im- possible because of lack of data, then the mind may well leap to the right conclusion and prodtice something logical. To the conscious mind the thing is still impossible. Adding to the gradual fade of the details was the dif- ficulty of transposition of the Earthly terms into Trendan mathematics. Their manipu- lation of equations was different.

Their method differed. He took a sheet from Maradun and tried to write an equation. He thought of it in Earthly terms, which was difficult enough in Johntha's mind, but when he tried to write it down with Johntha's body, he ended up in the same block as he'd found when trying to say Earth or Terra the first time. But a Trendanization of the term Earth into the alien form: "Yearth" would not serve for a complex equation upon which depended the development of an atomic reaction.

Especially one that was unknown as to method and procedure. He tried, and he tried, and there were a few distorted scrawls on the paper. Maradun shook his head. Barry tried to explain in words, but Mara- dun stopped him after several minutes. Won't do us any good unless we can get these unknown facts. I wag reading a paper before the Trendan Mathematical Association, and all the mem- bers were hanging on every word, completely ignoring the fact that I was standing there on the stage clad only in my underwear.

What bothered me most was the fact that I was standing with one foot in a bucket of cold water and one foot in a bucket of hot water. The man who factors the square root of minus one into real num- bers will be the greatest mathematician in the universe. Psychologist Crenda thought for a moment and then said : "It is obvious. You see, the subconscious mind was still aware that Johntha was still on Trenda and still ill.

But if he could devise a means of traveling through interstellar space, then the illogi cities of the false per- sonality could be erased in fact. The maze of the mind is complex. Doctor Kendon nodded agreeably. To Barry he said : "This dream of yours is lading? But T find myself slipping into the personality ol Johntha by the moment.

Your equations are of this variety, what little I can make out of them. The trouble is that you can not recall the proper values to assign to the various unknown functions. And I Nelieve that Johntha is cured. Johntha, you may return to your old line of work as soon as you care to. Electronician Johntha is a valuable man to Trenda. We can well afford to spend and hour or two getting him set properly after his long illness.

Hours later, Barry Williams sat in the library, reading. He walked up and down occasionally like a caged animal. He used sheet after sheet of paper trying to recapture the science he had been so apt at on Terra. He failed — miserably. He fought for the symbols and they eluded him. And he found himself thinking in circles. Vella, unquestioningly loyal, took her small car into the city and returned wilh several good texts on atomic theory, both practical and theoretical.

He took them and pored over them, setting down factors that he was able to decipher and translate. It was all there, right up to the last few weeks of Trenda's work on atomic theory.

It parallelled the Terran work, which was of considerable help — but it did not go far enough. There was a great gap. Not in the theory itself, for the possibilities of releasing the total annihilation energy of alpha particles was discussed as a desirable fantasy. It dis- cussed also the possible means of starting the reaction as well as the theories of how containing such a reaction might be achieved. This was of no help whatsoever.

Trenda had no idea of anything remotely practical. It was merely negative evidence and com- pletely in avoidance of the practical means used on Terra. They ignored the Earth method because they were in complete ignor- ance of it. As such— Barry Williams failed to team a single thing from the stacks of books. Night came swiftly, and Vella prepared dinner.

Barry put the problem out of his mind then. Caution: Use only U directed. Get Broruo-Selttcr at your drugstore fountain or counter today. This one factor, he noted, was the only thing that seemed untouched by the molding process that was going on in his mind. When Vella entered, he became aware, vividly, of himself as Barry Williams.

It was very pleasant to see Vella in an apron, working in the kitchen. Her presence at the other end of the table pleased him greatly, and after dinner, he ignored his problem, sitting in the deepening night, just talking to the girl. In this, he found little to say, but he plied her with questions about the year or more of his illness and urged her to tell him what she had been doing. He took silent dislike to all males she mentioned in friendly tones and enjoyed with her whatever recreation she had taken that was not of a man-woman kind. The evening went swiftly, and it was not until Johntha retired to his room that the problem came up again.

It came with a sickening realization that his — Barry Williams's — experience had faded terribly. He had been unable to make anything sensible out of his atomic theory. He had renounced his Earthly birthright for this. Forgetting Vella as an impossibility, ever, he had come here of his own will m the hope that his act would make Terra suc- cessful in the attempt to get the Star Lady into space. Returning to Earth would have been futile; coming here to Trenda had seemed the only way. But he and Johntha were in the same category. It was reasonable to suppose that anything that he experienced on Trenda his counterpart on Earth would find similar.

And he had failed to produce anything cogent. Was Johntha as frustrated on Terra? Would he awaken with the full knowledge of space -problems plus those of the sub- etheric level? Or would his Trendan science fade and die. It was a terrifying possibility, and far too great a possibility for his peace of mind. For just as atomicians gave little heed to the theories of electronicians here on Trenda, so would the communications experts on Earth be inclined to question a complete new science so Iht from both the communications and the atomic fields that had been "dreamed" up by an atomic expert Or should he have insisted upon the fact of his change in personality?

That might have lent sufficient weight to his words to force the atomician to experiment at least. That is, providing he could have convinced them. Were he to persist in the transposi- tion theme, he knew, his next habitation would have been a psychic ward under strict observation, and the possibility that, forever afterwards, his word and his judgment would be subject to critical scrutiny.

So he had failed. And he knew instinc- tively that his own failure would be mirrored by the man on Earth. He had given up his Terra life on a gamble and he had lost. For all the benefit that either Earth or Trenda would derive, Barry Williams and Johntha might as well have returned to their own bodies. It would have made life less confusing to both of them. Add to all this the fact that he was at- tracted intellectually to a woman who was by all common knowledge, his sister. The body he inhabited was still Johntha's, and despite the mental affinity for the girl, the body re- sponded only in a brotherly way.

Barry Williams was sincerely glad about this. There would be enough torture to go on living near to Vella in her brother's indiff- erent body. It would have been intolerable frustration if Barry's instincts had been able to arouse Johntha's body. His deep admiration for the' man was still strong, and would profjably be strong for the rest of his life. He knew Barry j Williams' mind, and knew the cost of that I decision. He sprawled easily on the hospital bed and considered the thing fully. His determination to measure up to the other man's decision rose strong within him. He would succeed!

No seff-curse for failure entered Johntha's mind for he set aside the possibility of failure as something not to be considered. As he lay there thinking, the nurse came with breakfast, and with the nurse came the doctor and several colleagues. The doctor nodded greeting. Doctor Edwards went over the supposed Barry Williams with a critical eye, testing and inspecting. Doctors Ham- mond, Burger, and Morse. Edwards, "my trouble is this. When Barry awakened, he was quite puzzled about himself, where ho was, and what he'd been doing.

I trust that we can discover whether any real damage has been done by that rather severe electric shock. He rejected the words 'Car-line' and — " "Understandable," said Dr. But he could not tell us who he thought he was. He again repudiated his accomplishments on the Star Lady. He claimed that he had been suffering for some time with a disease known as neurophasia.

Burger, er heard of it. Morse hopefully. I suspected a lay- man's mispronounciation. There are no symptoms of any of these, other present or past. This man's nervous i stem is in excellent tone. Another psychic block. A psychic block against illness, plus the delusion he can solve hisproblem. Hammond's word as psychiatrist was good so far as they were concerned. Johntha, lying in the bed, listened with amusement.

They had it so pat and perfect. If at this moment he should sit up and admit his name was Barry Williams, and agree that the car-line feeder was the cause of his mental confusion, the worthy doctors would attribute his remarks of last evening to the effect of electrical shock upon the brain.

But then any insistence he made as to the science of sub-etherics and the functions thereof would be immediately discounted as the ravings of a sick mind. In fact, it was well that he had experienced that rapport with the mind of Barry Williams or he would be convinced, right now, that his past experience on Trenda had only been part of a magnificent dream, and as a dream, he'd not have any faith in the value of Trendan science. But since meeting Barry Williams, mind-to-mind, he knew the real truth, amaz- ing as it was.

He was now prepared to accept the truth and go to work, applying sub- etherics to the atomic engines. He would carry out Barry Williams' ambitions regard- ing the Star Lady. Hammond," he said. I am really — ah, the best that I can do with this Earthly tongue-training is Chontkrad. Leave it at that because it is of minor importance now. I was an elec- tronic specialist on a world known as Dkrenga, a distant star.

T was smitten about a year ago with a disease of the nerves which we knew as neitrophosia. Tt is mostly a mental ailment and its name comes because the mind causes the nervous system to create great gaps in the nerve-impulses or in the speed of transmission along the neurones. Thus, you see, even ,the involuntary muscles are affected adversely, but the effect upon the voluntary system is complete loss of dexterity and timing, also balance. It created a condition of shock in the brain. The mind of Barry Williams left this body here and entered mine on a distant planet.

I, seeking a means out of the neurophasia, entered his body. I believe this is due to the fact that the two of us are closely attuned. At any rate. I came here complete with my knowledge of the Dhren- gan science of sub etheric wave mechanics, which will be instrumental in solving the problem of the Star Lady. This problem, you know, is one caused by the danger that the energy from the engines may consume the engines themselves.

Like an ulcer, doctors. My mind thinks, of course, in the terms of my own planet and my own training. But the brain which uses no false symbols, accepts the pure thought, and when I speak, the proper translation is made in the brain and the words come out with Barry's training in speech and habit. When I am spoken to, I hear the words, but the pure idea conveyed to the hrain by the words is easily translatable into my own mental terms, hollow? He lighted a ciga- rette, a habit he found interesting but unnecessary to his mind though to this body.

It was an Earthly habit. Trendans did not smoke. Then last night, my mind met the mind of Barry Williams. We discussed the transfe - We discussed our singular problems, and v decided that this carried-knowledge woul most certainly fade if wc each returned to our own bodies. On the other hand, if we re turned to the other's body , each of us woul carry sufficient information to enable — well, to enable me to get the Star Lady in worki" order.

He — sent me here. I have a gre admiration for the man. A man willing t give up his own ambition to satisfy the col lective ambition of Earth is not often en countered. Such bcaulifu sophistry. I can think of a number of ways of solving your problem of the engiti and I am admittedly ignorant of atomi physics. A super-ray or development of some unknown level of energy peculiarly adapted to means of propulsion at velocities exceed- ing that of light.

I need. Williams, who has, for sake of writing: logically, created for himself a complete scientific background with false-basic mathe- matics and a close interrelationship of the supposedly real scientific phenomena. YpuJ apparently have done the same thing as ai means of explaining your illness and inability to solve the atomic engine problem.

Frustra-j tion so complete will do that to the mind,: you know. False, of course, but they believed in it and their own integrity with equal vigor. You must not dwell on the atomic problem until I permit you to resume. He looked meaningly at his collegues who nodded solemnly. Barry got the look. Hammond disparagingly. And what happened Galileo tried to teach the Copernican ry to Pope Urban? Galileo discovered tliat he was bucking proof of a false nature but none the less solid. So far as I am concerned, your proof against me is as false against a known science as the case you bring to bear.

Hammond to his colleagues. I'm going out there and go to work. His path was blocked by Dr. Johntha let the doctor have it right across from shoulder to point-of-jaw. Burger dropped like a limp rag. That was the touch-off. The other three physicians leaped on Johntha's back before he could turn. Their sheer weight carried him down, and there were too many of them for him to fight efficiently. He slugged Ham- mond in the pit of the stomach and doubled the psychiatrist over his forearm.

He kneed Dr. Morse viciously because that was the quickest way to get rid of Morse. Edwards, meantime, was getting set, and the older man chopped the side of Johntha's face with the edge of his hand. It would have felled him cold if delivered by a jjounger man. As it was, the elderly doctor's blow staggered Johntha, giving Dr. Edwards another chance to get at him. The second weak blow in the same place shook Johntha's frame terribly, and upon the third, the man went down, weakly. Blackout came. Johntha awoke again to find a changed scene. Iron bars guarded the tiny window.

The bed was small but rugged. It would be impossible to break up the bed and use any pieces to effect a break. The electric light was set, recessed into the ceiling and, obviously, could be turned off from outside, for there was no light switch. But the walls were not padded, and the restraining jacket that he had been delivered in was now gone. He never knew about that, incidentally. Johntha sat up and swore vigorously. He tried the dour, and then he rallied the door- knob hard. It was locked, of course.

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The Judas window swung open and a hard face peered in. He peered into the guard's face and then said: "I'd like to poke you in that nasty nose. Get out and bring back someone with authority. Now git! Giving orders ain't going to get you nothing. And threatening people wid violence will land you in a padder wid a jacket on, see? Now sit down quietly and in a half hour we'll start giving you treat- ments.

Electro- therapy! They'd scramble his memory- pattern until it was like an addled egg. They'd destroy his subconscious evaluation of all of his own previous experiences. The card-file of his memory laboriously built up through the long years of his life on a day by day basis would be upset and all the cards scattered. Then in a year or more of careful sorting, he could replace them, but with a different set of values assigned to each. The sub-etheric wave mechanics, pre- cariously carried in his mind on a super- imposed, not-understood method would die completely since it was only his ego that retained it.

The unnatural warpings of the convolutions of his brain caused by the snperimpnsition would react to their pre- formed pattern and the memory of Trendan Johntha, would die completely. And what of the real Barry WHliams? His ambition would go unrealized. Johntha felt sick. The other man, willingly giving up his position, his friends, and his life to the job of getting Earthmen to the stars, would live and die on Trenda, never knowing whether Earthmen would place their mark on the interstellar reaches.

And then Barry mind would live in torture of its o decision, for Johntha' s mind in Barry Wi liams's body understood the instant an honest attraction that existed between Vel and the mind of Barry Williams. Johntha knew that Barry was honest an true. Vella was untouchable to the Earth man. Hence the secondary decision. Hac they known about this upset in plan, Barr. At least, on Earth. Bar could have existed on hope. Hope that they' perfect the atomic engine and eventual! The door opened and men entered. Job tha leaped up. They weren't going to sc ble his brain!

With insane strength he fought They won by weight of numbers tho" Johntha left a few broken heads on the w Not trussed, but firmlv held by hard, bru hands, he was lifted and carried along hallway, up a flight of stairs, and into a roo bare but terrible — equipped with a sim chair, a piece of electrical apparatus, and headset. He was strapped to the chair, fought them with his eyes and his voi and they pressed down upon his head electrodes. A flaming green light blinded him lessly, and he knew no more.

Only immersion could partial forgetting be complished. Therefore Barry returned his laboratory in the city on arising the n morning. Of course, this was not the problem of frustra- tion that his job had been on Terra. Here was a straight designing job with all factors known and the problem one of merely adapt- ing the known scientific theory to practise. Barry immersed himself in it. He applied himself diligently, made excellent decisions and cut some close corners with singular 'success. But he could no longer reach for the stars id hope to win. He could reach for a lesser 1 and win, and he would win brilliantly.

Perhaps after a high success, of this minor nature, Trenda would give him permission to make the other attempt once again. He kept a notebook at his side daily. Whenever he found something at all clear, he would set it down in the notebook and forget it. As the days added together, the notebook filled slowly with symbols that were half a corrupted Terran script and half good Trendan characters.

The forms of the equations were mixed, too, conforming as they did partly to Terran and partly to Trendan conventions. Some day it would all be clear, perhaps. He worked long hours and accomplished much. He knew that both Psychologist Crenda and Doctor Kendon were following his actions with very critical eyes — and he also knew that they found only laudable acts. Occasionally Atomician Homarr would drop in to see him, and though it rankled his mind, he and the atomician would treat his dream as an amusing incident. Inwardly, he knew that the atomician was not too certain, Crenda' s statements about the subconscious mind being able to arrive at a solution that might not be understood because of conscious inhibitions in thought, had struck Homarr very close to home, and though the atomician did not think there was anything to the "unreal science" as he called it, he was not pertain that Barry's idea was in the realm of pure imagination.

The mathematician called often, too. This relationship was amusing to both. From time to time a bit of Terran mathematical manipulation would creep into Barry's work, and the complete difference to the Trendan style puzzled the mathematician.

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He had thought lightly of possible differences in symbol and structure, hut had never Hone anything more than toy with the duodeci- mal system once or twice. Maradun, like most mathematicians, was a chess-player of no mean ability, and he played often with Barry, though the Terran mind in Barry's body did little but hinder occasionally.

A John Spenser who matriculated as a sizar at Pembroke College, Cambridge, at Easter and graduated in —8 may well have been a younger brother. A John Spenser , perhaps the same person, is recorded as attending Merchant Taylors' School in , and a John Spenser is recorded as serving as constable of Limerick in , the coincidences suggesting, assuming both are the same person, that he was probably related to Spenser in some way. It is not certain where in London Spenser was born.

Early eighteenth-century antiquarians claimed that he came from East Smithfield but, given the low population of this area, it is more plausible that he was born in West Smithfield. He was probably born in , since he matriculated at Cambridge University in , at a time when the usual age at matriculation was sixteen or seventeen.

First he attended the recently founded Merchant Taylors' School, probably from , the year in which it opened, although the sole record of his attendance is for his last year there, The headmaster was the humanist educational theorist Richard Mulcaster , whose rigorous pedagogical methods and intellectually demanding approach to the curriculum strongly influenced Spenser. Mulcaster was also interested in the development of the English language, advocating its widespread use but recognizing its need to borrow words and phrases from other languages.

It is perhaps significant that this problem was one which Spenser examined throughout his literary career. The school was housed in an old mansion, the Manor of the Rose, in the parish of St Laurence Pountney. On 26 February Spenser was one of thirty-one 'certyn poor schollers of the scholls aboute London'—six from his school—who were left 1 s.

This may indicate that the Spensers were poor, and so suggests that Spenser's father was the less rather than the more successful John Spenser mentioned above. Spenser subsequently received three payments from Nowell's bequest: 10 s. He also received five other payments while at university, between and , which may have been on account of ill health or further indications that he was a scholar in need of funds.

Shortly before he went to university Spenser translated a series of twenty-one poems: six 'epigrams', which were stanzas from Petrarch's canzone 'Standomi un giorno solo a la finestra' , and fifteen sonnets from Du Bellay's 'Visions'. These were published with accompanying woodcuts as an introduction to A theatre wherein be represented as wel the miseries and calamities that follow the voluptuous worldlings , a translation of a work by the major Dutch protestant poet Jan Van Der Noot by Henry Bynnemann , a prominent publisher, who had entered the work in the Stationers' register on 22 July These works indicate that his was regarded as a precocious talent, as it is unusual for a schoolboy to contribute to such an important volume.

They also suggest that Mulcaster , who was friendly with Van Der Noot's cousin Emanuel Van Meteren and had other Dutch contacts, may have been instrumental in launching Spenser's writing career. Spenser matriculated at Pembroke College, Cambridge, on 20 May as a sizar—a poor scholar who earned his bed and board by performing a series of servant's duties. Spenser wrote little about his life at college but he did refer to 'My mother Cambridge' in The Faerie Queene book 4, canto 11, stanza He appears to have read widely in a variety of languages, and could read Latin, Greek, French, and Italian, and probably other tongues.

His contemporaries included Lancelot Andrewes , who followed him to Pembroke from school two years later; Gabriel Harvey , who became a fellow in and was to be Spenser's most significant mentor for the next ten years or so; and Edward Kirke , admitted as a sizar in , who may have made some contribution to the notes published with The Shepheardes Calender , or at least have been party to their complex humour and eccentric nature.

On 18 October a bill was signed to an Edmund Spenser for bearing letters from Tours for Sir Henry Norris , ambassador to France, to Queen Elizabeth , indicating that Spenser was already involved in secretarial work for powerful patrons. Spenser graduated with a BA in , his name placed eleventh in a list of , and an MA in , when he was placed fourth from last out of seventy the lists may not be in order of merit.

It is not clear how he spent the next three or four years. It is possible that Spenser was in Ireland in the mids. Such evidence is also problematic, as it depends upon an exact identification of Spenser with Irenius, a fictional character in a dialogue. However, there is corroborating evidence: Spenser is recorded delivering letters and a 'cast of falcons' to Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester , from Sir William Drury , president of Munster 8 July It is possible that Spenser was working for the lord deputy, Henry Sidney , Leicester's brother-in-law, as he had for Sir Henry Norris.

Some time after 1 April Spenser was employed in the household of Dr John Young , bishop of Rochester, and former master of Pembroke College when Spenser was a student Young was installed on the above date. It is likely that Spenser lived at the bishop's residence in Bromley, which would account for E. Gabriel Harvey records that he and Spenser met in London on 20 December Spenser presented Harvey with four 'foolish bookes' that he had to read before 1 January or give Spenser his four volumes of Lucian. Rowland , c.

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The outcome of the contest is not recorded. Harvey also noted in his Letter Book that Spenser looked like a 'young Italianate signor and French monsieur', a description that gives a sense of the humorous banter established between the two friends. Spenser was clearly writing poetry throughout the s. The prefatory epistle to The Shepheardes Calender , signed E. It is likely that some of these works were revised and reappeared as parts of longer poems published later commentators speculate that the 'Courte of Cupide' was revised as The Faerie Queene , book 3, cantos 11— Certainly this would accord with other information about Spenser's habits of composition.

Lodowick Bryskett records, in his Discourse of Civill Life , an exchange—which may be in part fictional—between a number of intellectuals at his house near Dublin in Spenser begs to be excused from a discussion of moral philosophy because he has already completed such a task in The Faerie Queene , which suggests that his works were often written a long time before they were published and that they were carefully revised.

Spenser wrote to Harvey on 5 October from 'Leycester House' to say that he had entered the earl's service and was ready to travel abroad for his master. It is likely that he had entered the Leicester circle some time between September and April On 15 October he wrote to Harvey again, from the house of ' Mystresse Kerkes ' in Westminster, to say that he was in 'some use of familiarity' with Sir Philip Sidney and Edward Dyer , and that they debated how to reform English metre and bring it in line with the standards of the ancients.

In another letter Harvey writes that both he and Spenser are friendly with Daniel Rogers , another acquaintance of Sidney's. Commentators have suggested that Spenser and Sidney enjoyed a close relationship and discussed poetic matters, before Sidney's untimely death in Others argue that the evidence is slim and that it is unlikely that someone of Sidney's social status would have been keen to spend a great deal of time with a commoner such as Spenser Heninger. They had two children, Sylvanus and Katherine — Richard Mulcaster , Spenser's former headmaster, had a child named Sylvanus.

Spenser married again, in , but his poetic persona, Colin Clout, refers to being 'Vassall to one, whom all my dayes I serve' Colin Clouts Come Home Againe , , which suggests that Maccabaeus Spenser died between c. The Shepheardes Calender was entered into the Stationers' register on 5 December and was published by the protestant publisher Hugh Singleton soon after that date, as the poem bears the imprint indicating that it must have appeared before the end of February.

The Calender was a popular work and was reprinted in , , , and , demonstrating that Spenser did make an impact as 'our new poet'. It contains twelve poems, complete with prefatory comments and notes by E. The poems describe events in the lives of a series of fictional shepherds and vary from apparently personal laments on the nature of loss and unrequited love to stringent ecclesiastical satire and attacks on corruption and court patronage.

They comment on the nature of love and devotion, the pains of exile, praise for the queen, forms of worship, the duties of church ministers, forms of poetry, the merits of protestantism and Catholicism, and impending death. Equally important is the showy technical proficiency of the works and the ways in which the poems and commentary serve to announce the arrival of a major new English poet.

The Calender was soon followed by another work, presumably as part of the same plan to launch Spenser as a significant English poet. To these letters were attached 'Two other very commendable letters, of the same mens writing … more lately delivered unto the printer'.

Spenser's letters are purportedly written from Leicester House and are dated 5 October containing further material dated 15—16 October and 2 April They discuss a variety of intellectual and literary matters, concentrating especially on the need to reform English poetry and, especially, the desirability of quantitative metre. The tone, in H. Woudhuysen's words, is 'familiar and intimate, knowing and rather jokey, secret and yet clearly assembled with publication in mind' Hamilton , , in line with the textual apparatus of The Shepheardes Calender.

Spenser refers to 'Dreames' and 'Dying Pellican' as 'fully finished'. Spenser probably arrived with Lord Grey on 12 August. He now lived in Ireland until his death, returning to England at regular intervals for official and literary business. He may not have wished to leave for Ireland, as some have conjectured. It is likely that he incurred the wrath of William Cecil, Lord Burghley , for his hostile portrait in Mother Hubberds Tale , which appears to have circulated in manuscript in the late s or No copies of this manuscript survive and there is no contemporary corroborating evidence, apart from internal references, added later, lamenting the fate of an unsuccessful courtier—presumably Spenser himself—who has 'thy Princes grace, yet want her Peeres' l.

The last lines of The Faerie Queene have also been taken to refer back to this incident; Spenser hopes that his work will be read fairly, unlike his 'former writs', and so be:. John Stubbs , author of The Discoverie of a Gaping Gulf , an aggressive treatise urging Elizabeth not to make her subjects obey a foreign, probably Catholic, monarch, had just had his right hand severed for publishing his work. Stubbs's book was translated into French and Italian, and a manuscript was sent to the pope, precipitating an international incident.

Spenser could hardly have chosen a less apposite time to circulate a topical satire of the incident, in which he seems to show that the queen is in danger of being duped by the French ambassador, Simier , represented as an ape Elizabeth's name for him in league with her chief minister, represented as a fox. The disastrous effect of Mother Hubberds Tale probably explains why Spenser , who had promoted himself as the most important new English poet earlier in the year, did not publish another significant work for ten years and concentrated instead on his career in the Irish civil service.

It is possible that Spenser accompanied Grey on some military expeditions and he may have been present at the notorious massacre at the Fort d'Oro, Smerwick, on the Dingle peninsula, on 9 November , when Lord Grey ordered the slaughter of some Spanish and Italian troops who had surrendered to the lord deputy. The state papers contain letters in Spenser's hand from Grey to Elizabeth and Lord Burghley , vigorously defending his actions.

Wicklow and co. On 14 March Spenser was appointed clerk of the chancery for faculties, as successor to Lodowick Bryskett. The seven-year appointment required the drafting of the licences and dispensations issued by the archbishop of Dublin. Spenser undoubtedly employed a deputy and kept part of the salary for himself. He is referred to as 'gent … secretary of the deputy', affirming that his position in Ireland had changed his status, probably through his ability to purchase and rent land.

Spenser was undoubtedly living in Dublin or close outside throughout this period. It is likely that his intellectual circle in Dublin was wide and varied, as indicated in Lodowick Bryskett's Discourse of Civill Life. As well as Bryskett and Grey , Spenser undoubtedly knew Geoffrey Fenton , translator of prose romances and of Guicciardini's history of Italy, who married into the Boyle family, as Spenser was to do later; Barnaby Rich , soldier and author of numerous romances and political treatises; and Barnaby Googe , author of Eglogs, Epytaphs, and Sonettes —pastoral poems that may have had some influence on The Shepheardes Calender —and numerous translations.

On 6 December Spenser was granted the official lease for the abbey and manor of Enniscorthy, co. Wexford, a former Franciscan monastery, 'and a ruinous castle and weir there'. In —2 Spenser also leased a house in Dublin; a former monastery at New Ross, co. Wexford, which he later sold to Sir Anthony Colclough d.

Kildare, 25 miles from Dublin 15 July There is only one record of Spenser paying rent August , which suggests that he probably moved to Munster soon after that date. It is unlikely that Spenser would have been able to become a gentleman in England, and this change in status may also explain why he chose to pursue a career in Ireland. New Abbey was forfeited by James Eustace after his rebellion. Lord Grey was recalled and left Ireland on 31 August , so ending Spenser's secretaryship.

Books by Hamilton, Edmond (sorted by popularity) - Project Gutenberg

Grey … was a blodye man, and regarded not the life of her [majesty's] subjectes no more then dogges' Works , Such partisan support indicates that Spenser thought highly of Lord Grey and respected him as a master. He may have accompanied Grey on his final expedition to King's county in May—June In May Spenser was appointed a commissioner for musters in co.

Kildare for two years, with twenty-six others. The commissioners were expected 'to summon all the subjects of each barony, and then so mustered in warlike apparel' Maley , 38 , when necessary. Spenser's address is given as New Abbey, implying that this was his principal residence. Spenser was summoned to perform his duties on 4 July , with twenty-five others. On 6 November Lodowick Bryskett , whose career in the Irish civil service appears to have been more advanced than Spenser's and who seems to have acted as patron to the younger man, was officially installed as clerk of the council of Munster and secretary to Sir John Norris , president of the council.

Assuming that the new lord deputy, Sir John Perrot , required secretaries to follow him on expeditions and tours of duty, Spenser may have accompanied Perrot and Sir John Norris on a tour through Munster and Connaught in July to install Norris and Sir Richard Bingham in their respective presidencies. In Spenser became prependary of Effin, a benefice attached to Limerick Cathedral, which probably made few, if any, demands on his time. A prepend was a pension or plot of land granted to a cathedral to fund a secular priest or a regular canon; Effin, west of Balingaddy, consisted of acres.

In Mother Hubberds Tale he makes a direct reference to the problematic nature of prepends:. Spenser would have attended the sessions at the presidency court of Munster in Limerick and Cork throughout and A few years earlier plans had been made to establish a plantation of English settlers in Munster using the lands confiscated from the native Irish after the Desmond rebellion — The forfeited lands were surveyed in September—November with the purpose of selling them off to settlers; the plan for the plantation was drafted in December and, having passed through the Irish parliament of , which Spenser would have attended, the articles for the Munster undertakers received royal assent in June.

At some point in Spenser acquired an estate of acres connected to the ruined Norman castle of Kilcolman, in co. Cork, one of the smaller portions of land granted to English settlers on the plantation from over half a million acres confiscated from the earl of Desmond's lands. It is likely that he used one Andrew Reade to claim the property on his behalf. Kilcolman was described as 'a large castle, old, and dilapidated, which at the present time has no use except to shelter cattle at night' Maley , Spenser would have lived in an adjoining house, not in the castle itself.

Like Dublin, Munster would have supplied Spenser with numerous intellectual contacts, allies, and companions. Sir Walter Ralegh was his immediate neighbour, occupying an enormous estate of 42, acres in co. Cork and co.


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Waterford, although he may not have spent much time in Ireland. Richard Beacon , the queen's attorney for Munster and author of Solon his Follie , occupied land also in the counties of Cork and Waterford. Meredith Hanmer , protestant polemicist and historian, whose history of Ireland was included in Sir James Ware's edition of Irish chronicles, together with Spenser's View , was archdeacon of Ross from until his death in Sir William Herbert , author of 'Croftus, sive de Hibernia liber' , occupied land in co. Kerry and acted as vice-president of Munster in the absence of Sir Thomas Norris while living in Ireland from to Spenser's life was to be closely connected to the fate of the plantation until his death.

Spenser was probably in Dublin for much of , attending the Irish parliamentary session, which opened on 26 April and closed on 14 May. A sonnet written to Gabriel Harvey , and later included in Harvey's Foure Letters , is dated 18 July from Dublin, suggesting that Spenser spent most of the year in Dublin, probably returning to attend sessions of the presidency court of Munster held in September in Dungarvon and in October in Lismore and Youghal. The third edition of The Shepheardes Calender was published in London, indicating that Spenser's work was still in demand in England.

Spenser undoubtedly attended a session of the Munster council in Cork in March and two others in Limerick in June and November He probably spent most of the year in various parts of Munster. By October he was serving as deputy to Bryskett , clerk of the council of Munster. Records indicate that he must have taken up residence at Kilcolman some time in , probably around September, when Lord Roche , a local Irish landowner, complained to the queen's commissioners that some of his land had been occupied by English planters.

It is likely that Spenser spent some of the year with Ralegh , who was resident in his house at Youghal, and was serving as mayor of the town. Spenser sold on his post as clerk of the court of chancery to Arland Uscher 22 June. There was general panic in Ireland in , when the Spanish Armada tried to sail home round the Irish coast and out into the Atlantic. Fearing Atlantic storms, many sailed close to the coast and, because their maps were not accurate enough to navigate through the treacherous waters, most were wrecked—twenty-five in February alone.

The English authorities in Ireland, fearing an invasion triggered by an alliance between Irish and Spanish, swiftly mobilized to deal with any survivors. Spenser would have returned with Norris to Munster in January , as a letter in his hand indicates Maley , 48—9. On 12 October he wrote directly to Elizabeth , alleging that:. Edmund Spenser falsely pretending title to certain castles and 16 ploughlands, hath taken possession thereof. Also by threatening and menacing the said Lord Roche's tenants, and by seizing their cattle, and beating Lord Roche's servants and bailiffs, he has wasted 6 ploughlands of his lordship's lands.

The undertakers countered with a bill against Roche , alleging that he had:. Verdon's , Mr. Edmund Spenser and others.


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  4. He speaks ill of Her Majesty's government and hath uttered words of contempt of Her Majesty's laws, calling them unjust. He killed a fat beef of Teig Olyve's , because Mr. Spenser lay in his house one night as he came home from the sessions at Limerick. He also killed a beef of his smith's for mending Mr. Edomondo Hamiruton. Edomando Hamiruton. Showing all translations. Never display translations Registered users can choose which translations are shown. Ankokusei Daisekkin!

    Kapitan F'yucher prikhodit na pomoshch'. Arashi no Kaitei Toshi. Kapitan F'yucher prinimayet vyzov. Fushi mitsubaidan Kyoui! Fushi mitsubaidan.