Out-of plane fed elliptical slot array for microwave imaging. Klemm, M.
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Microwave radar-based differential breast cancer imaging: Imaging in homogeneous breast phantoms and low contrast scenarios. Leeper, D. Ultrawideband-the next step in short-range wireless. Li, L. Wideband balanced antipodal Vivaldi antenna with enhanced radiation parameters. Progress in Electromagnetics Research C, 66 , — Lubecke, V.
Through-the-wall radar life detection and monitoring. Molaei, A. Dielectric lens balanced antipodal Vivaldi antenna with low cross-polarisation for ultra-wideband applications. Moosazadeh, M. Small monopole antenna with checkered-shaped patch for UWB application. Muqaibel, A. A new formulation for characterization of materials based on measured insertion transfer function. Nassar, I.
Nouvelles Topologies - Study and Application of Microwave Active Circuits with Negative Group Delay
A novel method for improving antipodal Vivaldi antenna performance. Natarajan, R. A compact antipodal Vivaldi antenna for UWB applications. Modified antipodal Vivaldi antenna for ultra-wideband communications. Pastorino, M. Microwave imaging.
Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Porcino, D. Ultra-wideband radio technology: Potential and challenges ahead. Pozar, D. Microwave engineering. New York: Addison-Wesley. Qing, X. Parametric study of ultra-wideband dual elliptically tapered antipodal slot antenna. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, , Ralston, T. Real-time through-wall imaging using an ultrawideband multiple-input multiple-output MIMO phased array radar system.
Ultra-wideband low-cost phased-array radars. Roqueta, G. Analysis of the electromagnetic signature of reinforced concrete structures for nondestructive evaluation of corrosion damage. Sagnard, F. See page C2 immediately preceding page 9 for a color version of this figure. Wireless personal area networks WPANs provided the first mass-market commercial applications of short-range mmWave using the 60 GHz band. Currently, the most popular application of WPAN is to provide high-bandwidth connections for cable replacement using the high-definition multimedia interface HDMI , now proliferating in consumer households.
The increasing integration of 60 GHz silicon devices allows implementation on small physical platforms while the massive spectrum allocations at 60 GHz allow media streaming to avoid data compression limitations, which are common at lower frequencies with reduced bandwidth resources. Easing compression requirements is attractive because it reduces signal processing and coding circuity requirements, thereby reducing the digital complexity of a device. This may lead to lower cost and longer battery life in a smaller form factor.
WPANs often connect mobile devices such as mobile phones and multimedia players to each other as well as desktop computers. The IEEE All standards, in their first release, guaranteed to provide under favorable propagation scenarios multi-Gbps wireless data transfers to support cable replacement of USB, IEEE , and gigabit Ethernet.
Currently, 60 GHz is the only spectrum with sufficient bandwidth to provide a wireless HDMI solution that scales with future HD television technology advancement. WLANs are used to network computers through a wireless access point, as illustrated in Fig. WLANs are a popular application of unlicensed spectrum that is being incorporated more broadly into smartphones, tablets, consumer devices, and cars. IEEE These devices carry up to four antennas and operate in the 2. Until IEEE It is supported by device manufacturers that recognize the role of mmWave spectrum in the continued bandwidth scaling for next-generation applications.
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The largest challenges presented to 60 GHz and mmWave WLAN are the development of power-efficient RF and phased-array antennas and circuitry, and the high attenuation experienced by mmWaves when propagating through certain materials. WLANs, which typically carry Internet traffic, are a popular application of unlicensed spectrum. MmWave technology also finds applications in cellular systems. One of the earliest applications of mmWave wireless communication was backhaul of gigabit data along a line-of-sight LOS path, as illustrated in Fig.
Transmission ranges on the order of 1 km are possible if very high-gain antennas are deployed.
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Until recently, however, 60 GHz and mmWave backhaul has largely been viewed as a niche market and has not drawn significant interest. Cellular systems are increasing in density resulting in 1 km or less distances between base stations. Concurrently, cellular base stations require higher-capacity backhaul connections to provide mobile high-speed video and to implement advanced multicell cooperation strategies. If wireless backhaul devices are able to leverage recent mmWave hardware cost reductions, they may be able to service this growing need at a lower cost with more infrastructure flexibility.
As operators continue to move to smaller cell sizes to exploit spatial reuse, the cost per base station will drop as they become more plentiful and more densely distributed in urban areas.
Study and Application of Microwave Active Circuits with Negative Group Delay
Thus, wireless backhaul will be essential for network flexibility, quick deployment, and reduced ongoing operating costs. Consequently, wireless backhaul is likely to reemerge as an important application of 60 GHz and mmWave wireless communications. In fact, we envisage future cellular and WLAN infrastructure to be able to simultaneously handle backhaul, fronthaul , and position location connections using mmWave spectrum. We foresee that mmWave will play a leading role in fifth-generation 5G cellular networks. The focus on area spectral efficiency is a result of extremely limited bandwidths available in the UHF and microwave frequency bands where cellular systems are deployed, as illustrated in Fig.
MmWave cellular will change the current operating paradigm using the untapped mmWave spectrum. The global spectrum bandwidth allocation for all cellular technologies does not exceed MHz. Currently, allotted spectrum for operators is dissected into disjoint frequency bands, each of which possesses different radio networks with different propagation characteristics and building penetration losses.
Cellular systems may use mmWave frequencies to augment the currently saturated MHz to 2. MmWave spectrum would allow service providers to offer higher channel bandwidths well beyond the 20 MHz typically available to 4G LTE users. By increasing the RF channel bandwidth for mobile radio channels, the data capacity is greatly increased, while the latency for digital traffic is greatly decreased, thus supporting much better Internet-based access and applications that require minimal latency.
Cellular systems that use mmWave frequencies are likely to be deployed in licensed spectrum at frequencies such as 28 GHz or 38 GHz or at 72 GHz, because licensed spectrum better guarantees the quality of service. Nokia has recently demonstrated that 73 GHz could be used to provide peak data rates of over 15 Gbps [Gho14]. The scattering effects also become important at mmWave frequencies, causing weak signals to become an important source of diversity, and NLOS paths are weaker, making blockage and coverage holes more pronounced.
To allow high-quality links, directional beamforming will be needed at both the base station and at the handset where propagation can be improved [GAPR09][RRE14]. As 5G is developed and implemented, we believe the main differences compared to 4G will be the use of much greater spectrum allocations at untapped mmWave frequency bands, highly directional beamforming antennas at both the mobile device and base station, longer battery life, lower outage probability, much higher bit rates in larger portions of the coverage area, cheaper infrastructure costs, and higher aggregate capacity for many simultaneous users in both licensed and unlicensed spectrum, in effect creating a user experience in which massive data-rate cellular and WiFi services are merged.
The architecture of mmWave cellular networks is likely to be much different than in microwave systems, as illustrated in Fig. Directional beamforming will result in high gain links between base station and handset, which has the added benefit of reducing outof-cell interference.
This means that aggressive spatial reuse may be possible. John R. Ojha Marc Peters and Igor Mini, Kin-Lu Wong, Garima, D. Bhatangar, J. Saini, V. Sexena and L.
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Joshi, Sarkar Huynh and K. F Lee, Lett 31, pp. Veselago, Uspekhi, Vol. Ziolkowski, Smith, W. Padilla, D. Vier, S. Nasser, S. Schultz, Pendry, Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W.