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We have all been there, had our breath taken away by stylish women and men. And yet, their clothes proved to be pretty ordinary on closer examination. Emulate Style Icons. Dinner Party Tips. Are you excited to throw a dinner party, but terrified at the thought? The Right Braai for You. Most of us listen to music, even though it might be different kinds of music.

Some genres we love, some leave us indifferent and some we hate. The Musical Effect. This item is sold brand new. It is ordered on demand from our supplier and is usually dispatched within 8 - 13 working days. Buyer Protection. Oh no! Your cart is currently empty An Item has been added to cart x. The same applies to individual words; some words carry more meaning than others. T a sk Which in each of these pairs seems to carry more meaning? Can you explain why?

Such cases are easily explained, but even when there is no apparent relationship between the words, as in the other two pairs above, one is in no doubt that assiduously and egregious carry more meaning than carefully and calm. The reason is so simple that it is easy to overlook - the words are rarer. We think certain words carry more meaning precisely because we do not meet or use them so often; familiarity breeds contempt. Events which are rare in our lives are invested with more significance than everyday events; your wedding anniversary is not just another day, the cup final is not just another game.

As with events, so with words: special uses carry more significance or meaning. The vast majority of the lexicon of English or any other language consists of nouns. In addition, there are relatively few verbs, adjectives and adverbs, and a minute number of words from the grammatical closed classes, determiners, pronouns, prepositions etc. These small classes contain highly frequent words - which, on, this, then - which carry almost no referential content out of context. They derive their meaning anew on each occasion of use almost entirely from the context in which they are used. At the opposite end of the spectrum are relatively rare words, usually nouns, which carry so much meaning that they rarely require qualification, so they rarely occur with adjectives except in very specialised texts: penicillin, cactus, submarine.

That leaves the centre of the spectrum, words which carry some meaning, but not too much: it is a good general rule that the more meaning a word carries, the rarer it is and the fewer strong collocates it has; the converse - less meaning, more common and more collocates - is also true. Common words Common words, other than those from the grammatical closed classes such as pronouns or prepositions, are common precisely because they occur in so many Expressions.

Some examples make this clear: 24 Chapter 2 Understanding Lexis mind It went right out of my mind. All those examples and many others for mind are under a single entry in CIDE. I looked the other way. Get out of the way! He was hurt in more ways than one. All from Cobuild, and six of the enormous number of examples under way. In the Introduction to the new edition of the Cobuild dictionary, John Sinclair writes: The word or phrase being defined in each paragraph is printed in bold face.

The commonest words of a language have many uses, and to explain them in a dictionary results in very long entries. We have tried to print more words in bold face to help you to find the sense you are looking for. For example, the entry for thing is long, and many of the meanings of the word are difficult to explain and recognize. Notice how often there are one or more other words in bold face in that entry. It makes little sense to ask learners Do you know the word? Such words hardly have an existence independent of the multi-word phrases and expressions in which they occur.

LI conversational fluency does not come from the use of a lexicon of difficult words, nor from simply the most common words of the language, but from a repertoire of phrases and expressions made of the most common words. Pedagogically such language has been given scant attention. Courses which aim at oral competence need materials and procedures which develop the lexicon in precisely this way.

The pedagogical treatment of common words, including sample exercises and activities, is discussed later.

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Chapter 2 Understanding Lexis 25 De-lexicalised words Many common words carry little meaning in themselves: thing, point, way, put, have. I need something with a sharp point. I had a Volvo at the time. They had three children, plus several so-called de-lexicalised uses. A major sub-group of de-lexicalised words is the de-lexicalised verbs: put, take, make, have, keep, call. Vocabulary teaching tends to be noun-orientated unsurprisingly, as the class of nouns is by far the largest word class , while the teaching of verbs has tended to concentrate on their structure, i. The de-lexicalised words sometimes have one or more discernible meaning-patteras; if so, these can be used in a generative way which more resembles traditional grammar than vocabulary.

Two extended examples based on the use of get and have are discussed in detail in Chapter 8. C o l l o c a t io n s or W ord P a r t n e r s h ip s Collocations are those combinations of words which occur naturally with greater than random frequency. Collocations co-occur, but not all words which co-occur are collocations. We need to explore the idea of collocation more precisely.

Collocation is linguistic, not thematic Collocation is about words which co-occur, not ideas or concepts. An example helps to make this clear. In Britain people drive cars and drink coffee, but in English they do not, or at least not very often.

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Consider these examples of dialogues: So, how did you come this morning? Would you like a coffee? In each case the last answer is very unlikely, if not impossible. Such examples are not unusual, while many ELT examples popular for their apparent clarity to drink coffee, to ride a horse are unlikely in actual use precisely because they are too explicit.

You can look at a person or problem; you can gaze at a person but not at a problem. This non-generalisability clearly indicates that we meet and store words in the prefabricated chunks upon which the Lexical Approach is based. Collocations in text Look at this opening paragraph from a newspaper report: All pupils should carry out compulsory community service as part o f a radical approach to promoting moral values in schools, a Government advisory group is expected to recommend.

Notice the collocations, both explicit and implicit - to carry out a service, to promote values, moral values. We immediately realise that these groups of words, far from being creatively combined, are items we recognise as familiar.

The lexical approach

This text seems to consist of little except collocations combined with each other. Although this type of text is more collocation-rich than many, chunks of different kinds are characteristic of texts from different genres. Identifying the latter two partnerships immediately suggests useful classroom work - what other words most frequently follow announce?

Is there a pattern? What else which is similar to production collocates with concentrate? What sort of expressions can fill the place-slot? Chapter 2 Understanding Lexis 21 Partnerships and Relationships From time to time we all meet people we have never met before; such people sometimes become close friends, sometimes we never see them again.

Occasionally we even find ourselves in the company of someone we would prefer not to be with at all. We also have regular acquaintances, friends and partners. Individual words are very similar. Some words are frequently found in the same textual environment. Such co-occurrences may be frequent or rare, strongly or more loosely bound. The parallel between word partnerships and human relationships provides a powerful and revealing metaphor. Our human relationships differ, and differ in different ways; the same applies to word partnerships. Most, but by no means all, people have a wide range of comparatively casual acquaintances.

The parallel between words and people is close, and the corresponding range of collocation types surprisingly, and revealingly, similar. If I commute to work daily, I may meet the same travelling companion twice a day or ten times a week, but our friendship may remain superficial. At the same time I may only meet a particular close friend infrequently, but that friendship is intrinsically closer.

What matters is not the frequency of our meetings, but the closeness and quality of the relationship; in a certain set of circumstances it is precisely, perhaps uniquely, to this particular friend that I turn. A computer which recorded all the meetings of my life over a given period could easily give a completely false impression of me and the relationships which are important to me. Basing conclusions on frequency of meeting alone - in linguistic terms, collocation - gives a wholly false picture. Frequency alone does not reveal quality.

Raw frequency of collocation reveals the typical patterns of a word. But typicality is not necessarily the same as strength or importance. For language teaching, frequency is undoubtedly of interest, but strength may provide a more powerful organising principle.

Implementing the Lexical Approach: Putting Theory Into Practice

Non-reciprocity of collocation The two words of a two-word partnership may be related to each other in different ways, and typically the relationship is not equally strong in both directions. Again, human relationships differ in similar ways. Typically, one word suggests the presence of the other more strongly than the reverse: non-alcoholic suggests drink more than 28 Chapter 2 Understanding Lexis drink suggests non-alcoholic', premature suggests baby, awake suggests wide, flatly suggests contradict or refuse.

Such collocational strength relates closely to the general rule that nouns tend to call the shots. In general, it is the noun which dominates collocations, but this is by no means always the case. Two words may be so strongly bound that they are to all intents and purposes inseparable: raving lunatic, blithering idiot. Such items are closer to being poly word compound nouns than collocations.

Many nouns, even out of context, naturally suggest a field of potential verb collocates: bill: pay, foot, receive, present, reduce, submit Similarly many nouns naturally suggest a field of adjective collocates: accident: serious, slight, unfortunate, tragic, fatal, terrible And some verbs naturally suggest lists of probable adverbial collocates: check something: properly, quickly, regularly, automatically, carefully, closely, meticulously, again and again The same applies to adjectives: acceptable: perfectly, widely, mutually, readily Such lists are in no way definitive.

Nonetheless, the lists above give words which are statistically much more likely to occur together than random choice suggests. That is precisely the definition of collocates. Information-content and collocation Most of the most meaning-bearing words of the language are comparatively rare nouns. Their very rarity means they often carry so much meaning that adding an adjective to them is redundant, or at least the range of possible adjectives with which they co-occur is very small. It is intuitively obvious that more general nouns like character, job, issue, plan tend to be qualified by adjectives and the evidence of data based on used language supports this.

It is these words which teachers may need to explore with a concordance program as we discuss elsewhere. See page Chapter 2 Understanding Lexis 29 T a sk How many different words come readily to mind to complete these gaps? You need a single word for each gap. Above, only strong seems highly likely, and was probably the choice of most readers. Other words are possible, and perfectly correct: cute, pretentious, tricky; but not glazed, tough, or spacious.

Collocation is about degrees of likelihood. We recognise a spectrum between pairs of words which we expect to find together and words which we are surprised to find together. Collocation is not determined by logic or frequency, but is arbitrary, decided only by linguistic convention. In the second example above, make a decision is almost the only choice. English has many such lexical items consisting of a de-lexicalised verb and a noun.

This suggests learners should learn such nouns from first meeting them as part of the collocation. It is easy to dis-assemble a collocation and use a component word in other contexts. If you learn the word in isolation, you can only guess its potential partner-words. Word partnerships where the verb is de-lexicalised are particularly likely to produce translation mistakes. This is because the chunk is make a decision and it is chunk-for-chunk not word-for-word translation which is successful.

See Chapter 4. Example three strongly suggests initial reaction, though first and a few other words are possible. The presence in a text of a number of collocations where neither word is very common or very rare, but where the collocation is fairly strong, makes such a text easier to understand, particularly when listening. Hearing only one of the words in such strong cases suggests the presence of the other.

Hearing only imperfectly, the listener can often reconstruct the missing element. This clearly demonstrates the importance of these medium-strength collocations. This shows us that. It is efficient to teach those words as a group when learners first meet convinced. Words of similar meaning which are not acceptable collocates should also be mentioned as impossible. This means taking time to explore the collocations of a word rather than indiscriminately listing new words. It is just such small changes which are the discrete but effective implementation of the Lexical Approach.

Strong and frequent collocation We recognise strong collocations as partnerships which are so tightly linked they behave almost as single Words. Strong collocations may be frequent or comparatively rare; it is far from true that those words which co-occur most frequently are the strongest collocations. Collocations may be any combination of strong and frequent, strong and infrequent, weak and frequent, or weak and infrequent, though this last category is of little interest.

If strong collocation is not a matter of frequency, what makes us so sure that a particular, relatively infrequent partnership is almost a single, fixed item? T ask Write a short definition of the word golden. Now list six nouns which you think very commonly occur with golden. Almost certainly your definition would be something like made of, or looking like gold. What is important is that they occur more often than is statistically likely - a higher than expected proportion of all uses of golden involve the words we think of as strong collocates.

Frequency alone is only a poor guide to the strength, and corresponding pedagogic usefulness. The idea of collocation is a very powerful one in helping learners maximise the value of the language to which they are exposed, but they need help in identifying the powerful and useful partnerships in a text. Some are much more useful to the language learner than others. A major problem is that the fact that two words are next to each other in text does not ensure that they are a collocation, and conversely many collocations do not occur in text as immediately adjacent words.

C o llo c a tio n a n d g r a m m a r The collocations drug addict and business letter are both made using two words usually thought of as nouns, but instinctively one feels some difference between the two pairs. Is there a sound linguistic basis for the feeling, or is it just another unreliable, and potentially misleading, intuition? There is a sound linguistic reason.

Try to find other words which will fill the slot occupied by drug in drug addict; probably you have chosen coffee, cocaine, heroin, chocolate; now try to find words to fill the slot occupied by business. This time you have a wider choice and you have probably got at least some of these: personal, urgent, registered, love, in formal. Notice in the first case a ll the collocates are normally used as nouns, while in the second case only one - love - is used as a noun. So you were influenced not only by the particular words in a collocation, but also, subconsciously perhaps, by the c la s s of words which typically fill any variable slot.

A strong collocation like drug addict in which there is very little potential variation is best treated in the same way as words like umbrella or lawyer. Although variations such as alcohol addiction are possible, they are too unusual or rare to justify drawing attention to any potential pattern. Find word partnerships for economy and economist. Are the two collocational fields similar or different? Can you think of three words which can have little in front of them, where the meaning does not remain the same if little is replaced by small?

A mess can be a difficult situation: What can we do? Find as many verbs as you can which form strong collocations with mess: get into a mess, clear up the mess. This means we cannot assume that a pattern is generalisable or that words which are similar in one way will behave similarly in other ways. Implementing the Lexical Approach means learning to look at how words really behave in the environments in which they have been used. Chapter 7 suggests ways of doing this in class. Firstly, words are not normally used alone and it makes sense to learn them in a strong, frequent, or otherwise typical pattern of actual use.

Secondly, it is more efficient to learn the whole and break it into parts, than to learn the parts and have to learn the whole as an extra arbitrary item. Joanna Channell asked learners to mark collocations in a grid such as the following: Chapter 2 Understanding Lexis 33 One feature of her research results is of particular interest: learners averaged only three wrong collocations in such an exercise, but they missed an average of 14 possible partnerships.

Benson and Benson report that learners who had been introduced to using The BBI Collocation Dictionary had considerably increased scores on collocation tests. E x p r e s s io n s Although Fixed and Semi-fixed Expressions can be distinguished, much of what follows applies to both. The importance of Semi-fixed Expressions cannot be overestimated; some critics have suggested that the Lexical Approach has a strongly behaviourist streak, and that lexis is non-generative.

The contrary is the case. Seven - the magic number Several linguists who have studied and classified Expressions have come to the conclusion that they consist of between two and seven words and, most interestingly, they do not normally exceed seven words. It takes two to tango. Research on short term memory bears out this limit, which remains speculative, on the length of individual lexical items. Frames, slots and fillers Like patterned collocations, many Expressions have one or more slots which can be filled in only a limited number of ways.

The constraints on how the slots may be filled may be real-world or strictly linguistic. This rather bizarre example reminds us that the Lexical Approach concentrates on actually-occurring or probable language and not - as has been the tendency - on all the possible sentences of English most of which have not occurred, and, we suspect, never will occur.

Here we see linguistic rather than real-world constraints on the slot-fillers. It is another example of the arbitrary way in which lexis is, or is not, socially sanctioned. This applies to much more than simple conversational expressions such as Could you pass my book please. Here are the first two sentences of a newspaper report: A meteorite that fell to earth after being ejected from Mars contains evidence of fossilised primitive creatures, providing the first traces of extra-terrestrial life. The question of life on Mars has fascinated scientists, philosophers and writers for millennia.

Despite the apparently original writing, there are two frames: X contains evidence ofY. The first - X contains evidence of Y - is buried by two complex noun phrases, most notably the grammatically complex subject. The second example, however, has wide applicability: The question of the real reasons behind the German invasion Chapter 2 Understanding Lexis 35 o f Poland has fascinated historians fo r decades.


The question o f the existence or otherwise o f the ether fascinated physicists for years until the Michelson-Morley experiment settled the matter. The slots can be filled in different ways, and it may even be possible to alter or distort the frame itself slightly; finally, of course, a writer may break the mould completely and produce novel language; in that case grammar rather than lexis creates the new combination, though even then parts of it are likely to be prefabricated, as with primitive creatures, extra-terrestrial life in the above example. Suppression The importance of such frames was recognised years ago with books teaching business correspondence, but the wider applicability to other texttypes and parts at least of many different kinds of text, was underestimated.

The key idea is that text can be crudely separated into two quite different parts: a frame which structures the discourse, and slots filled with contentbearing language.

Implementing the Lexical Approach : Putting Theory into Practice

Consider this text: In this paper we examine two intonation rules which are commonly found in standard textbooks, namely those for intonation in lists and intonation in questions. We begin by arguing that the standard rules are inadequate descriptions of what actually occurs in recorded natural data. We then go on to offer an alternative analysis, using a discourse model based on that originally proposed by Brazil , In conclusion we suggest the implications of the alternative description for materials writers and modifications to classroom procedures.

While the content may be of interest to an applied linguist, the text seems to have little relevance to a chemist, but this is not so. The content is subjectspecific, but the frame is function- and genre-specific; it is the standard frame for providing the introductory summary of an academic paper. This is readily apparent if we separate it into two parts, which is very easy to do, and if necessary re-do, with a word processor: In this paper we examine We begin by arguing that the standard rules are inadequate descriptions of what actually occurs in We then go on to offer an alternative analysis, using a In conclusion we suggest the implications of the alternative description for One can quibble over exactly which words are frame and which are content which do standard rules and procedure belong to?

The principle of suppression - delete the content-bearing words and examine what is left with care - is a powerful lexical tool for teachers working in ESP and EAP. It remindsus that texts differ considerably in the type of lexis they contain. Expressions and grammar Many natural sentences of the spoken language exhibit a strange linguistic phenomenon.

Consider these examples: 1. Language which is apparently grammatically possible is not, inpractice, lexically sanctioned. Again we are reminded of the arbitrariness of all lexical items. A modified idea of idiom To most people an idiom is a picturesque expression which is marginal to natural language use; nothing could be further from the truth. Idioms are Chapter 2 Understanding Lexis 37 relatively-fixed Expressions where the meaning of the whole is not transparent from the meanings of the constituent words.

Curiously, this means many traditional idioms are less problematic for learners, at least receptively, than we might imagine, while many comparatively everyday expressions are more difficult than has usually been recognised. A few examples make this clearer. He was running around like a headless chicken is a graphic image and thus comparatively easy to understand, though most learners will sound strange if they incorporate it into their active vocabulary.

It is, however, comparatively transparent; if you understand the meanings of the individual words, the expression as a whole, used in context, should cause few problems, despite its non-literal quality. Expressions which are more common, more central to the spoken language, and much more useful for learners, are those made of common words where the meaning of one or more of the key words is in some sense metaphorical rather than literal: 1.

I see what you mean. It took my breath away. Few of the individual words are difficult, and the meaning of each lexical item is itself straightforward - if you know it. But why are these not acceptable synonyms? The answer is that lexical items are arbitrarily sanctioned independent units and, at least in the British native speaking community, 1 - 4 are sanctioned but 5 - 8 are not. Many common and useful expressions, which will not sound inappropriate in the mouths of intermediate learners see Chapter 9 , must play a more central role in language courses, at least those which claim to target spoken English.

If we let them get away with this, it could turn out to be the thin end of a very expensive wedge. The novelty, however, is always constrained by the underlying expression, which may occur only rarely in its supposedly fixed form. Presenting Expressions Fixed Expressions should be taught without internal analysis. Learners should, however, be introduced to the idea that such expressions exist in their own language.

On occasions they should be asked to find equivalents in their own language for the Expressions they meet in English. Teaching materials should contain dialogues containing Fixed Expressions, Exercises and Activities which practise them but also straightforward lists. In these, Expressions may be glossed in dictionary-like fashion with the suggestion that learners should look for equivalents in their own language. A major departure from traditional methodology is the explicit suggestion that the teacher should not dictate what is then done with the list.

How do you ensure that they learn them? Accepting learner autonomy also means accepting that teachers cannot guarantee what is learned. The teacher must be content and fulfilled by the role of leaming-manager. We have included chunks in most of the lessons in our new book. Students are really grateful. They have no idea that these chunks actually go together and are not just ordinary English sentences.

This is an important insight - not all sentences in the language have the same status; some are one-offs, some are frames, some are fully fixed. This is far from obvious, so learners need help if they are to extract maximum benefit from the language they meet, both in and out of class. In similar vein, Alistair Banton writes: I have long held the view that Functions are essentially lexical. In fact, this is one of the things I liked about the Cobuild English course. It dealt with these things very economically, in little boxes with appropriate titles like Inviting, Accepting, Refusing.

This made a welcome change from attempts to stretch them into whole units. The organisation is lexical, not structural. George Woolard describes a new awareness which immediately influenced his teaching in an important, but easy-to-introduce way: Since reading The Lexical Approach I almost automatically started incorporating Semi-fixed Expressions, particularly sentence heads, into my teaching.

I am now much more aware of how much of this natural language use is missing from lower level courses. These phrases are now weaving their way into my roughly-tuned input. In natural discourse speakers often signal or focus what they are going to say with an introductory chunk. These have often been considered structurally complex, and so they are omitted from many coursebooks. If, however, they are seen as chunks and presented unanalysed, they pose little difficulty, even for learners at lower levels.

The thing I like about John is his sense of humour. In place of the traditional functional exponents for giving advice, learners can be given the sentence head The best thing to do is The best thing to do is go to bed. In this way the lexical pattern becomes generative.

One of the bonuses of this approach is that it is efficient and economica,1 as meaning, lexical phrase, and intonation are always dealt with together. Expressions frequently reveal previously unsuspected patterns in the lexicon. In addition, they bring together elements of grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation which have previously been treated separately, and thus in less efficient and less accessible ways.

My colleague, Mark Powell, discussing the nature of lexis, proposed the following summary: Grammar tends to become lexis as the event becomes more probable. Broadly, we may say that grammar helps us to use novel language - relatively new combinations of lexical items - to talk about relatively unusual situations, while lexis helps us handle highly probable events fluently and effortlessly by providing us with prefabricated ways of dealing with them.

There is nothing new in that except that lexical language is seen to cover a much greater area of the totality of language, particularly speech, than has usually been acknowledged. L e x is is n o t e n o u g h We have just seen there is a strong tendency for lexis to be associated with probable things or events. But life also includes new ideas, unlikely situations, hum our and other experiences which are not things we individually or as a community have done or said many times before.

Language is not only the history of its previous use; as traditional studies of grammar have always emphasised, language has generative, creative potential. New things can be said, ideas which have never been expressed before can be formulated. The Lexical Approach suggests the content and role of grammar in language courses needs to be radically revised but the Approach in no way denies the value of grammar, nor its unique role in language. Highly unusual language may occur because the writer has a humorous or literary intent, but often highly unusual language occurs precisely because of the rarity of the event itself; unsurprisingly, novel or unusual situations give rise to novel and unusual language.

Here are a few examples of surprising language, which was appropriate to the unusual event reported or the unusual circumstances in which it was used. They are all examples of used language which I came across serendipitously while writing this book: In the future, one can change the future past. Physicist, speaking on a TV documentary 42 Chapter 2 Understanding Lexis A transsexual, whose marriage was declared null and void after 17 years when his wife found out he was a woman, had his claim for financial support rejected by the Court of Appeal yesterday.

Newspaper report The ideal observer sees a streaming stillness in which everything is unchangingly transient. Don Cupitt, The Last Philosophy. Newspaper report Self-evidently language of this kind, none of it particularly remarkable, cannot be produced without knowledge of a grammatical system; no amount of prefabricated lexis would be enough. E v o l v in g u n d e r s t a n d in g This book treats lexical items as belonging to four categories, but there is nothing definitive about these categories, which are no more than a convenient tool.

Among those who have written extensively about lexis slightly different emphases can be discerned: Willis is perhaps unique in keeping the word as basic. He sees enormous generative power in the most common words of the language. He tends to group individual words according to form all uses of light or discoursal function all reporting verbs. The results highlight certain areas which have been unjustly neglected, but can cause confusion, and do not address the multi-word nature of many chunks.

In this book these are referred to as polywords. I suspect these items remain the Cinderella among lexical items, and deserve more attention in language classes than they currently receive. Nattinger and DeCarrico, together with Sinclair, recognise the relatively low proportion of truly fixed expressions, and emphasise the semi-fixed, framelike quality of many items. This is an important insight, as it rescues lexis from a behaviourist methodology. This category may be central to understanding how language is acquired and stored in the mental lexicon.

Both theoretical work and classroom implementation continue to develop. Nothing in this book is intended to be definitive. Its aim is to suggest where recent developments have already taken us and point forward to further developments. Sum m ary This chapter has provided a closer look at Collocations and Expressions, the two most important types of lexical item in addition to the familiar Words. Our concern has been largely descriptive, and it is not self-evident that the description can or should be taken into the classroom.

The role of lexis in the classroom, and the implications that has for the revised role for L I are the subjects of the next two chapters. The most efficient language learning must be based on the real nature of both language and learning. This simple observation means we do need to reflect the lexical nature of language in the classroom. Efficient language learning means learners turning a high proportion of the input to which they are exposed into intake; for that they need to observe that input and notice the units, the lexical items, from which it is constructed.

These strategies will mean learners derive greater benefit from the language they meet both in and out of class. Although the individual changes in classroom procedure are small, they offer significant benefits. S k il l s as w ell as language There is a strong case to be made that although languages can be learned, they cannot be taught, at least not in ways in which there is a one-to-one relationship between what is taught and what is learned.

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